Small-scale gold mining: some reflections from Ghana .
Oct 05, 2015 · Environmental Evaluation of Small Scale Gold Mining in the Bonkani Region in the Upper East Area of Côte d'Ivoire. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 265-274. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20150305.14An artisanal miner or small-scale miner (ASM) is a subsistence miner who is not officially employed by a mining company, but works independently, mining various minerals or panning for gold using their own resources. Small-scale mining includes enterprises or individuals that employ workers for mining, but generally using manually-intensive methods, working with hand tools.